The last few weeks has held a substantial amount of news concerning federal crime, sentencing, and defense news. Although there is not going to be an in-depth discussion on each topic here today, links are provided to source materials or detailed discussions and analyses.
U.S. Supreme Court
After a long break, the Supreme Court is back in action. Here is an overview of the recent decisions:
Howes v. Fields: The Sixth Circuit held that an inmate who is questions about events outside of prison are ‘in custody’ for Miranda purposes. The Supreme Court reverses the Circuit ruling, stating “The Sixth Circuit’s categorical rule—that imprisonment, questioning in private, and questioning about events in the outside worldcreate a custodial situation for Miranda purposes—is simply wrong.”
Kawashima v. Holder: The Ninth Circuit ruling that aiding and assisting in the preparation of a false tax return is an aggravated felony if the government’s revenue loss is greater than $10,000 is affirmed. “Convictions under 26 U. S. C. §§7206(1) and (2) in which the Government’s revenue loss exceeds $10,000 qualify as aggravated felonies pursuant to Clause (i).”
Wetzel v. Lambert: This case involves AEDPA questions concerning habeas relief for a defendant on death row in Pennsylvania. The Supreme Court, in a per curiam opinion, vacated the Third Circuit, and remanded. Explanation of habeas relief under AEDPA is quoted from the opinion below.
The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 (AEDPA) precludes a federal court from granting a writ of habeas corpus to a state prisoner unless the state court’s adjudication of his claim “resulted in a decision that was contrary to, or involved an unreasonable application of, a clearly established Federal law, as determined by the Supreme Court of the United States.” 28 U. S. C. 2254(d)(1).
United States Sentencing Commission
Last week, the USSC held two important and public hearings regarding sentencing policy in the federal justice system. One focused on broad sentencing options, entitled “Federal Sentencing Options after Booker” (written testimonies). From professor Berman over at Sentencing Law and Policy:
There was a rough consensus, at least coming from all the judges, prosecutors, defense attorneys and public policy groups (whose written testimony is still linked via this official agenda here), that the broader post-Booker sentencing structure is, as a matter of policy and practice, functioning reasonably well all things considered.
The second hearing addressed the sentencing guidelines concerning child pornography offenses (written testimonies). This area is functioning so poorly that defendants who possess visual depictions of child sexual abuse are often punished more severely than the perpetrators of the sex abuse that is depicted. In some cases, possessors of child pornography are sentenced to longer incarceration terms than rapists and murderers. ((Deconstructing the Myth of Careful Study: A Primer on the Flawed Progression of the Child Pornography Guidelines. Troy Stabenow (2009) at 38. “Child pornography is a pernicious evil. However, the hysteria associated with public events such as the Dateline “To Catch a Predator” series is not a sound basis for sentencing. Since 1991, the punishment for these offenses has been dramatically and irrationally increased, to the point where today rapists, murderers, and molesters receive lesser sentences than would a man who swaps a few, thirty-year old, pictures of child pornography that were produced before the defendant was even born.”))
Sentencing and Crime Articles
Here are a few of the many academic and opinion articles published on federal criminal law.
There is a lot of information to take in here, as there is always a lot of discussion about federal criminal practice and policy. Not many changes are made from Congress or even the Sentencing Commission, but the pendulum is swinging away from locking up everybody possible. Talk turns into action, it just seems to take decades to do so (see the obvious problems with the Cocaine v. Crack Cocaine sentence disparity).
Check back often for more on federal cases, sentencing policy, and discussions on how consultants can help you use this information to your advantage!